The History of Man's Evolution
|The Evolution of Man
(From Soup to Nuts)
(Guess who the nuts are.)
1. 6 K
1. 5 K
Our universe forms.
Our galaxy forms.
Our Star system forms. Every atom in our bodies already existed when the
solar system formed. We are made of stardust! Really old stardust.First rain.
First life elements form in the sea (primordial SOUP).
Bacteria form. (Maybe 3.5 BYA) We are related to every animal and every plant
that is alive today and that ever lived, through a common ancestor – bacteria.First bacteria divide; clone selves in 20 minutes. (Self-replication. Wow.)
Yes, we are descendant from apes but bacteria are our oldest progenitors.
Note too, that life evolved from inanimate matter, as did intelligence. Well,
maybe inanimate matter has some form of intelligence. For example,
electrons "know" what to attract and what to repel. And that they can revolve
around neuclei. And what orbital diameters are admissible. Etc.
Photosynthesis. Stromatolites in Greenland.
Cyanobacteria, the blue-green photosynthesizing stomatolite microbes,
oxygenate the atmosphere.Prokaryotes (simple single cell organism lacking a nucleus) arose. Natural
Eukaryotes – Single celled organisms with a nucleus & organelles.
Eukaryotic organs are colonies of various prokaryotes. (Self organization. Microbial aerobic respiration commences.
Protoctists form = First established beings, organisms.
Bacteria go on land.
Metazoa - Multicelled organisms. In our lineage.
Cambrian "explosion" (Life forms proliferate.) Note that almost all of the
lifeforms bigger than a microbe that ever lived on earth, came in the last 4% Fish, vertebrates with bilateral symmetry, and later with heads and jaws.
of the age of the planet!
Algae go ashore and start the plant world.
Tetrapods move on shore. They begot amphibians, reptiles (including
dinosaurs and birds), and mammals. Amphibians (eggs)
Mammals. (Placental. Wow! What a difference.)
End of dinosaurs; mammals start their rise.
Primates (Monkeys). Maybe 70 MYA. Dryopiths = arboreal.
Hominoids - Apes came out of the trees and split from the Old World
monkeys. Apes (are tailless and have opposable thumbs) = gibbons, Procounsel africanus – The early apes with some hominid features, taken as
orangutans (90%), gorillas (90%), and chimpanzees (98.4%). (Genes like
ours). 390 to 550 cc brains.
Ramapithicus. Man or ape? - Ape. Pre Orangutan. About same range as H.
erectus. 1st ape wave out of Africa?Orangutans split from great apes. (Maybe 18 MYA.)
Gorillas split off from great apes.
Shelanthropus tchadensia. Chad. A missing link? Yes, branched off to
Chimps and to hominids. 320 - 380 cc More hominid than chimp. To 6 MYA.Orrorin tungenensis. Bipedal. In our line? Tungen, Kenya. Chimp size.
Chimps remained non bipedal apes.
Hominid family (Maybe 4 MYA) – Bipedal Apes (our line) diverged from apes
(pre-chimps) via missing links. One such may have been Ardipithecus Ardipithecus ramidus (bipedal walker) – to 3 MYA. 1/3 brain size. Hadar
kadabba found in Ethiopia; 5.7 to 5.2 MYA.
Ethiopia. Likely to have evolved into Australoithecus. Was one of our Australopithecus anamensis (Southern ape-man). To 3.9 MYA.
ancestors but not of the chimps. To 4.2 MYA.
A. afarensis (Lucy) (for the Afar people of Hadar, Ethiopia) – Bipedal. 1.2m
tall; 380 – 450cc. Could be from 5 MYA to 2.9 MYA.Kenyanthropus platyops (Flat faced man of Kenya) Lomekwi, Kenya. May
be an arfaensis. To 3.2 MYA.First evidence of stone tool use, in the Dikika region of Ethiopia.
A. africanus (gracile) – to 2 MYA (May be in our line.) Sterkfrontein, South
Africa. 1.4m; 400 - 600cc. To 2.0 MYA.Paranthropus aetheopicus. W. Turkana, Kenya. To 2.5 MYA.
A. garhi (surprise) Bouri Formation, Ethiopia.
Homo? naledi - Malapa Caves, South Africa. ~268 cc brain size. Found 2013.
Homo habalis (handy man) – to 1.44 MYA. ½ brain size: 700 - 800cc.
Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Stayed in Africa? No, 1st out of Africa, prior to 1.7 H. rudolfensis. Koobi Fora, Kenya. Maybe Australopithecus. Maybe H.
habilis. Same span as habilis. 700cc.H. dmanisi – in Georgia and Java. Links Habalis to Erectus. 600-700 cc.
Paranthropus robustus To 1.6 MYA. 530cc. S. Africa.
P. boisei. – to 1 MYA. Extremely robust. 410 – 510cc. Olduval Gorge,
Australopithecus sediba. Malapa, South Africa. Found 2010. In our lineage.
H. ergaster (Working man) (In our line) Koobi Fora, Kenya. 1000cc. Some
H. ergasters stayed in Africa. Some left and begat H. erectus abroad.Homo erectus – to 200 KYA. Ranged from Spain to England to South China
(Korea) to Philippians. 800 – 1000cc. First hand axes @ 1.76 MYAEvidence of fire being used by man. (760 kYA in N Dead Sea)
Out of Africa "#1" starts – H. erectus. (Really #2, and ~1.5 MYA)
H. heidelbergensis – In Europe. 3rd wave? 600? or 355? to 100 KYA.
H. erectus in Near East.
H. erectus in Java – Java Man. (Maybe 1.5 MYA?)
H. erectus in China – Peking Man
H. erectus in England – Boxgrove Man.
Gawis (Hadar region) cranium 500 to 200 k years old. Homo _______
H. sapiens in Qesem cave in Israel??? And the Sima de los Huesos people of
First hut. Found in France.
H. sapiens (thinking man) - us! At Omo River Ethiopia. Full brain size –
1200 -1600cc. As smart as us! They had no books so they had to memorizeFirst wood spear, in England.
everything. Probably used more of their brain than we do. In fact, "Over the
past 20,000 years, the average volume of the human male brain has
decreased from 1,500 cubic centimeters to 1,350 cc, losing a chunk the size
of a tennis ball. The female brain has shrunk by about the same proportion."
brain-shrinking). Caused the extinction of many animals. 160? or 100? KYA
H. neanderthalenus – to 25 KYA. Advanced stone tools. Withstood
Europe’s Ice Ages best of hominids. Painted caves. Buried dead with First H.s out of Africa to Jebel Faya in the United Arab Emirates?
possessions. (Not our line) Some say that Neanderthal traits first appeared
350 KYA but the first full blown neande came 50 KYA. H. n came from H. h.
Man lost body hair (@ lice DNA) Wore clothes instead
Human language started??? (I would guess that Humans inherited some
communication skills from the apes they descended from, 200K years ago.)
First H.s out of Africa to the Near East. (2nd, 3rd, or 4th… wave out of
Toba volcano in Sumatra erupted. Biggest bang on earth, ever. Enormous
amount of ash in the air. Prolonged winter after. Mass extinctions. Only 3 K First stone arrow heads, found in South Africa.
to 10 K humans were left on earth (@ DNA study).
First H.s in East Asia.
First H.s in Italy.
First H.s in Australia.
First flute, in N Africa (43KYA in S Germany.)
First H.s in Siberia.
Homo floresienia (Hobbit), Flores, Indonesia. Expected span = 95 to 13
First cave art. – to 14 KYA
First voyage to Pacific Islands.
First H.s in Japan.
Cro Magnon = H.s Maybe 50 KYA. Les Eyzies, France. (Been there.)
Aborigines in Australia?
Coldest period of the last glaciation.
First Americans. (Amerindians.) Maybe as early as 30 – 40 KYA. About 70
people (@DNA) crossed Bering land bridge to populate America.Oldest known writing, Akkadian wedge script, was found in Jerusalem in
End of last Ice Age (Start of global warming, again. And start of civilizations.)
First farming, in the Near East. (10K BC)
First pottery, in Japan.
First Clovis Point
H.s at southern tip of South America.
"First hut". Found in England.
First copper working, in Near East.
First village!!! Near East. The start of "modern" civilization. (8K BC)
Potatoes in Peru
Farming in E Sahara, Balkans; rice in China.
Briton cut off from Europe by the rising sea!!!
Sahara turns arid – to 5 KYA
Farming in the Nile.
Horses domesticated on the steppes.
Maize in Mesoamerica.
Mammoth extinct in Siberia.
The ASPM gene, the big brain gene, first appears in man. Now 10% or the
population have 2 of this new gene, 40% have 1 new and 1 old, and 50% still Sumerian civilization – to 4.1 KYA. In Babylon.
have 2 of the old.
Cotton in South America.
Farming in Briton and Scandinavia.
Cities in the Near East. (3.3K BC)
First writing, Sumerians. In Ascaria, near Babylon, Mesopotamia. (See 14 KYA.)
Egyptian civilization to 2.2 KYA
Bronze, in Near East
Great pyramids of Giza.
Babylonian civilization to 2.5 KYA
Minoan civilization to 3.4 KYA.
Mycenaean civilization to 3.0 KYA
Greek civilization to 2.2 KYA. First alphabet. (Maybe Egyptians).
Bronze in Europe.
Iron, in Asia Minor.
Chinese civilization begins
Olmec civilization begins.
Iron in Europe.
Roman Empire to 1.6 KYA (476 AD)
Persian civilization, to 1.4 KYA
Cast iron in China.
Nazca civilization to 1.5 KYA
Farming in north America.
Mayan civilization to 1.4 KYA
Teahuanaco civilization to 1.2 KYA
Middle Ages to 500 YA
Aztec civilization to 600 YA
Islamic civilization –
Block printing in Korea – 750 AD
Inca civilization to 600 YA
Movable type in China – 1041 AD
Magna Carta – 1215 AD
Printing Press. Gutenberg – 1453 AD
Columbus - 1492
US - 1776
Industrial revolution. 1803 – 1820
Another glaciation is due.
Global warming accelerated by man.
Dieing sun expands to envelope the earth. We are toast. NUTS!
Our galaxy collides with the Andromeda galaxy. Even our ghosts are toast.
Ages of man – Stone: 3.3 M to 10 KYA; Copper: 10 K to 4.9 KYA; Bronze: 4.9 K to 3.7 KYA; and
Iron: 3.7 K to 0 KYA. Prehistoric: 200k to 7k BC; Ancient: 7000 BC to 476 AD; Dark: 476 to 1000
AD; Middle: 476 to 1453 AD; Renaissance: 1300 to 1650 AD; Reformation: 1500's AD; Modern:
1650 AD to present. (476 = fall of Rome.)
Stone Age = Paleolithic, 3.3 M – 150 KYA; Mesolithic, 150 K – 40 KYA; and Neolithic, 40 K – 10
Taxonomy: Name = John Doe, Species = Sapiens, Genus = Homo, Family = Hominidae, Order
= Primate, Class = Mammalia, Phylum = Chordata, Kingdom = Animilia, Domain = Eukaryote,
Organism (Has organs organized to work together to maintain and propagate the life of the
organism.) = Bacteria?
...root is the Organism (as this applies to all living things, it is implied rather than stated explicitly).
Below this are the Domain, Kingdom, Phylum (plural, phyla), Class, Order, Family, Genus, and
Species, with various other ranks sometimes inserted.