Evolution History - The Tree of Man
26 Mar 05

        The Family Tree of Man
        (Taken from:  www.tolweb.org/tree/phylogeny.html)


Early life (4 BYA) = Bacteria (0.2 - 2 microns) = Prokaryotes (single cell, no nucleus) led to:
    Eukaryotes (Protists, plants, fungi, animals, etc.)
    Eubacteria (True bacteria, mitochondria, chloroplasts)
    Archaea (Methanogens, halophites, sulfolobus, etc)
    Viruses???  (20 - 400 nm.)  Age = ???

Eukaryotes (nucleated cells) (3.5 BYA) =
     Opisthokonts (animals (Metazoa), collar-flagellates, fungi, microsporidia)
     Alveolates (dinoflaellates, cillates, apicomplexa)
     Slramenopiles (diatoms, chrysophytes, brown algae, opalines, other algaes)
     Rhodophyta (Red algae)
     Green Plants (green algae, higher plants)
     Other Protists (cryplomonads, euglenids, glaucophytes, etc.)

Opisthokonts (1 BYA) =
    Metazoa
    Flagellates
    Fungi
    Microsporia

Metazoa (800 MYA) =
     Bilateria (Most animals: vertebrates, arthropods, mollusks, etc.)
     Myxozoa
     Placozoa
     Conedaria (jelly fish, sea anemones, corals, hydra, etc)
     Ctenophora (comb-jellies)
     Porifera (Sponges)

Bilateria (bilateral symmetry) (750 MYA) =
     Deuterrostomea (vertebrates, echenoderms, tunicates, etc)
     Ecdysozoa (arthropods ((insects, spiders, crabs, etc)), several kinds of worms)
     Other Worms
     Lopholrochozoa (mollusca ((snails, clams, squids, etc)), still more worms, etc)

Deuterrostomea (700 MYA) =
     Chordata (vertebrates, and relatives)
     Echinodermata (sea urchins, starfish, sea cucumbers, etc)
     Hemichordata (acorn worms, pterobranchs)

Chordata (550 MYA) =
     Craniata (hagfish, vertebrates)
     Urochordata (tunicates)
     Calcechordata                                        
     Cephalochordata (amphioxus)
     Yunnanozoon
                                               
Craniata (animals with a head) (480 MYA) =
     Vertebrata (Hyperoartia ((lampreys)), Gnathostomata ((jawed fish)) )
     Hyperotreti (hagfish)

Vertebrata (animals with a backbone) (420MYA) =  
    Gnathostomata (jawed fish)  
    Hyperoartia (lamprays)
    Euconodomata; Pleraspidomorphi; Thelodonti; Anaspida; Galeaspida        
    Pelureaspida;             
    Osteostraci

Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates) (380 MYA) =
     Sarcopterygii (lobe-fin fish and 4 legged vertebrates)
     Actinoplerygii (ray-finned fish)
     Acanthadii
     Chondrichthyes (sharks, rays, sawfish, and chimeras)
     Placodermi (armored jawed vertebrates)

Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish) =
    Terrestrial Vertebrates (mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds, etc)
    Onychodontiformes; Coelacanthimorpha; Porolepimaopha; Dipnoi; Rhizodontimorpha;   
    Ostiolepimorpha

Terrestrial Vertebrates (400 MYA ?) =
    Tetropoda (amphibians, Amniota (mammals, lizards, crocs, birds etc))
    Numerous Others
                                                           
Tetropoda (350 MYA) =
    Amniota (mammals, lizards, crocs, birds etc)
    Amphibians

Amniota (310 MYA ?) =
    Synapsida (mammals)
    Diapsida (lizards, crocs, birds, Sphenodon)
    Several Others

Synapsida (320 MYA) =
    Therapsida (mammals)
    Several Others

Therapsida to Theriodontia to Cynodontia to Mammalia

Mammalia (220 MYA) =        
    Eutheria (placental mammals)
    Triconodonts; Mulleluberculata; Palaeoryctoids; Monotremata;

Eutheria =
    Primates (monkeys, lemurs, gorillas, chimps, humans, etc)
    Carnivora (dogs, cats, bears, raccoons, weasels, mongooses, hyenas, seals, walruses)
    Rodentia (mice, rats, squirrels, gophers, porcupines, beavers, etc)
    Arliodactyla (pigs, deer, cattle, goats, sheep, hippos, camels, etc)
    Catacea (whales, dolphins, porpoises)
    Periseodactyla (horses, tapers, rhinos)
    Proboscidea (elephants, mammoths, mastodons)
    And Others

Primates (55 MYA) =        
    Catarrhini (old world monkeys, gibbons, apes, humans)
    Platyrrhini (new world monkeys)
    Tarsii (tarsiers)
    Strepsirrhini (lemurs, galagos, lorises, etc)

Catarrhini =        
    Hominidae (humans, chimps, gorilla, bonobo, orangutan)
    Cercopithecidae (old world monkeys)
    Hylobatidae (gibbons)

Hominidae (apes) (25 MYA) =

                      Pongo (orangutan)
                                 Pan (chimps and bonobo)
                                        Ardipithecus (4.4 MYA)                        
Hominidae              B
                                            Australopithecus (4.2 MYA)
                             C
                                  D
                 A                          Homo (humans) (2.4 MYA)
                              Gorillla












A, B, C, & D = missing links.  C = 5.2 MYA = bipedal Hominids

Note: Many people think the progression of our species is: from Ardipithecus ramidus to
Australopithecus anamensis to A. afarensis to Homo habalis to H. ergaster to H.
heidelbergensis to H. sapiens