The History of  World Evolution
The Evolution of the World
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Our Universe forms (One of many?) - Big bang / expansion.  Now 20 – 40 B
    light years wide.  (1 light year = 9.46E15  m ~ 10 MB m).  Universe = <
    1% ordinary luminous matter, 4% ordinary dark matter, 23% exotic dark
    matter, and 73% dark energy.  The last 2 are unknown on earth, i.e.
    96% of the matter/energy in the universe is as yet unknown to man!
Electrons (Dia. = E-18 m), protons (E-15 m), and neutrons (E-15 m), ie
    protons and neutrons are a thousand times bigger  than electrons.
Nuclei formed.
Light atoms - hydrogen, helium, and some lithium.  Dia. = 0.1 – 0.5 nm (E-
    9  m).  The orbital diameter of the electrons is almost a million times
    bigger than a proton or neutron, ie there is a lot of nothing in an atom.  
    (There are ~1E22 (10Thousand Billion Billion) atoms in 1 cc of water.)
Stars.  ~200 B in the Milky Way,  ~2.5E22 (25 kBB) in the universe.  
Galaxies start to form. (~125 B in the universe.)
Supernovas fill out the periodic table.
Our Galaxy, the Milky Way, forms.  Dia. = 100 kLY = 9.5E20 m; Thickness
    of arm = 1 kLY.  Nearest galaxy = Andromeda @ 2.9 E6 LY and
    closing.  (Collision due in 6 billion years.)
Our Solar System, the Sun and planets, forms (Dia. = 1.2E13 m = 0.00127
    LY = 11.1 light days).  [Sun is 26 k LY to center of our Galaxy which is
    in the direction of Sagittarius; orbital speed = 220 km/s; period = 225
    MY.]  Sun dia. = 1.5E9 m.  Nearest star = Alpha Centuri @ 4.2 LY.  
Earth starts to form.  Almost every atom on earth and almost very atom in
    our bodies was created billions of years ago.  We are made of old
Moon forms @ collision of planetoid Orpheus (or Theia, or ?) with earth.
    Orbits CCW 1 rev per 27.3217 days; Repeats phases every 29.5306
    days. Spins 1/day.  Dia. = 3.476E6 m = ¼ earth dia; distance to earth
    = 3.84E8 m = 1.3 light sec.  Now thought to have formed 4.4 BYA.
Earth (1.2756E7 m dia. ~ sun dia. /100) “finishes” accretion. Heavy metals
    sink to core.  Orbits Sun CCW in 365.24 days; orbit tilt = “0” deg;
    orbital v(t) = 2.98 E4 m/s = 66,664 mph ; equator v(t) = 464 m/s =
    1,038 mph.  Axis tilt = 23.4 deg.  Axis precesses 1 rev per 26 k years.  
    Earth to Sun = 1.5E11 m = 1 AU = 1.58 E-5 LY = 8 light minutes.
Zircons formed = oldest rocks today.
First rain.
First life elements form in the sea.  Maybe 4.4 BYA.
First life = bacteria.  (0.2 – 2.0 μm dia ~ 2000 atoms wide)  All plants and
    animals now living on earth are related to one another, literally, through
    a common ancestor – bacteria.  (Virus dia. = 20 - 400 nm.)
Heavy and long bombardment by space rocks.  @ moon evidence.
Bacteria divide, cloning selves in 20 min.
Cyanobacteria, blue-green microbes, oxygenate the atmosphere.
Earth has weak magnetic field.  
One-celled organisms  (10 – 30 μm)
Continents start to form.  (3.4 – 2.6 BYA)
Continental plates start moving.  Now 9 major plates and several minor ones
Continents end formation period.  
Modern geology starts.   
Microbial aerobic respiration commences.  
Asteroid: Vredefort, South Africa - Asteroid dia of 10 - 15 km; crater dia =
    300 km; v = 10 - 20 km/s; energy = 87 MMt (million megatons) of TNT.
Huronian glaciation – 1 of 5 "Great Ice Ages" = all ocean surfaces frozen.
    Snowball earth.   -50°C during and +50°C (122°F) after - the Freeze
    and Fry cycle.
Ozone layer forms to block UV
Comet: Sudbury, Ontario, Canada - crater formed by hypervelocity comet:
    150 km main basin diameter and 260 km outer ring dia.;  ~100 MMt
    TNT.  A hydrogen bomb  = ~ 10 - 50 Mt TNT
Protoctists form = First established beings, organisms.
Mitochondia (respire air) form and join protoctists.
Bacteria move inland.  Bacteria induce mineral precipitation – gold etc.  
Late Proterozoic (or Neoproterozoic) glaciation – 2 of 5.  Snowball earth.
    Ice ages will occur every 200 MY and last for 1 – 10 MY, until 1.8 MYA.
First multicelled animals arise.  Fungi too.  
Mass extinction; 160 km dia. asteroid, Acraman, Australia; 53 MM tons of
    TNT.  There have been 8 mass extinctions since 600 MYA, most
    caused by external events.
Cambrian "explosion" – Life proliferates and evolves.
Fish – 1st vertebrates.  Bilateral symmetry, heads, mouths, jaws.
C/O (Cambrian/Ordovician)
mass extinction. 70% of species die.
Algae move ashore to form plant world.
Ordovician/Sillurian glaciation – 3 of 5. Frozen oceans.  
Mass extinction of
    marine animals – 80% of species die.  
Vascular plants.
Tetrapods go on shore.
mass extinction – 60% of all species die.
Reptiles (later = dinosaurs, birds.)
Trees - Carboniferous (coal) Period starts, runs 70M years.
Permian/Carboniferous glaciation – 4 of 5.  
Mass extinction.  Up to 95%.
All land masses joined as Pangia
mass extinction.  “The great dieing”.  90% of marine
    species; 80% terrestrial.  Caused by global warming triggered by a big
    meteor that hit Siberia.  Life recovery took 4 to 5 MY.  Latest info says
    that a huge space rock hit Wilkes Land Antarctica with about 100 MMt
    TNT, and this caused the antipodal Siberia to have massive lave flows,
    etc.  300 Mi wide crater.  Chicxulub rock was 6 miles wide; Wilkes was
    30 miles wide.  Australia broke off from the Gondwana super continent
    to be its own continent.
mass extinction.  Asteroid, Manicouagan, Quebec,
    Canada. 5 km rock; 100 km dia crater; 33 - 1000 M tons of TNT.   80%
    of species die.  Some think that plate movement/valcanization, that
    formed the Atlantic ocean, was the cause.
Cretaceous/Tertiary "Dino"
mass extinction 70%; Asteroid: 10 - 15 km =
    6 miles wide, ~20 km/s, Chicxulub, Mexico, 100 Million megatons of  
    TNT (~ 10 million A-bombs), 145 - 180 km dia. crater.  At almost the
    same time, another meteor hit in the Ukraine: the Boltysh Crater = 24
    km dia.  Mammalian species start to multiply.  
Warm climate.  Tropics up to central US.  Global temperatures now start to
    slowly drop.  (Since 4 BYA to 0 MYA temps haven’t varied more than
    15 to 20 deg C ie 55 to 70 deg F except for ice ages.
Primates (Monkeys)
Whales go back to sea.
Ice age
Asteroid: 100 km dia crater, 33 M tons TNT, Popigai, Siberia
Hominoids (Apes) came out of the trees and split from the Old World
    monkeys.  Apes (tailless and have opposable thumbs) = gibbons,
    orangutans (90%), gorillas (90%), and chimpanzees (98.4%).  (Genes
    like ours).
Big mountains form
Grand Canyon starts to form.
Ice age.
Hominids (protoman) split off from the apes.  (See "Man" for the rest of the
    man story.)
Asteroid? 18 km dia crater in El’Gygytgya, Russia.  If asteroid, would be
    equivalent to 13 M tons of TNT = nuclear winter = extinctions.
Ice age.
Homo habalis (handy man) – first man.  To 1.5 MYA.  Start of stone age.
Pleistocene glaciation – 5 of 5 "Great Ice Ages".  Since 1.8 MYA, earth has
    seen > 20 periods of glaciation, one every 21 or 41 or 100 Kyrs a la
    Milankovitch and his earth orbit variation theory.  (Global biorhythm?)
    Earths precession cycle = 26 (21?) ky; eccentricity cycle = 100 ky; axis
    tilt cycle = 41 ky.  22.5 < Tilt <24 degrees.
Tertiary/Quaternary mass extinction. 20%
Homo erectus  To 200 KYA
Last magnetic field reversal.  Next reversal now "overdue".  When the
    magnetic shield weakens, we will be exposed to harmful solar  
Donau I glacial, 600-585 k  
EuropeTiglian interglacial, 585-550 k
EuropeDonau II glacial, 550-540k  
EuropeWaalian interglacial, 540-470 k
Archaic Homo sapiens (thinking man).  To 150 KYA.  Some call him H.
    heidelbergensi.  In Europe.
Nebraskan/Gunz glacial, 470-330 k USA.
Aftonian/Cromer interglacial, 330-300 k North America
Kansan/Elster glacial, 300-230 USA.
Yarmouth/Holstein interglacial, 230-180 k USA.
Homo sapiens sapiens – Modern Homo sapiens.  The cause of numerous
    species extinctions, man is now working on the world's 6th mass
    extinction.  Only this time man will still be here, insuring that there will
    not be a rebound of the animal kingdom as has happened in the past.
Illinoian/Saale glacial, 180-130  USA
Sangamon/Eem interglacial, 130-70 k
Interglacial period.
Interglacial period.
Toba volcano in Sumatra erupts.  Biggest bang on earth ever.    Enormous
    ash cloud.  Protracted (nuclear) winter.  Mass extinctions.  Only 3 to 10
    thousand humans left on earth (@ DNA).
Wisconsinan/Weichsel (or Vistula) glacial period, 70-15 KYA
Meteor Crater in Arizona.  1st crater on earth to be identified as being
    caused by a space rock. The crater is 1.1 km dia.  The nickel-iron rock
    was 80 m dia and produced 2.5 Mt TNT for v = 20 km/s.
Coldest period of last ice age. Then, start of global warming again, ie a
    short, warm interglacial period.  Climate can change completely in as
    little as 3 to 30 years!!!
Space rock, or comet cluster, hit NE America (Lawrence Ice Sheet and
    points west?) and it and its aftermath caused the rapid but brief return
    of the ice age (Younger Dryas), the extinction of the Mammoth et al,
    and the Clovis people, from north America.  Proof is good but not yet
A few scientists say the next ice age is due any time now.  But it may be
    stalled (or maybe accelerated!) by the atmospheric-CO2-caused
    greenhouse effect.  When the fossil fuels are gone, we may again have
    an ice age and possibly another mass extinction, unless another
    meteor gets us first.  When the glaciers do come there will be a
    massive influx of people into the tropics.  Buy now.  Babylon may yet
    again be a garden spot.  

The African plate will collide with the European plate to squeeze the
    Mediterranean Sea out of existence and to push up a new mountain
    range.  (Rome may rise again.)
Dieing sun (red giant to white dwarf) expands to envelope the earth.*  We
    are toast.
Milky Way galaxy collides with the Andromeda galaxy.  Black holes merge.

* Life on earth, and every other planet in the universe, is
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